Genocide

Genocide: Worse Than War | Current Genocides in the World

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What is Genocide?

Genocide is basically a mass killing of a large number of people especially, there isn’t a certain Ethnic group on the whole nation but it’s actually much more than that.

How do we know when genocide is classified?

As genocide is classified into eight stages, Following these stages will help you determine whether Genocide is in the progress, has happened or is going to happen. :

  1. Classifications: Classification is when people of a certain ethnicity or nation are categorized to be distinguished.
  2. Symbolization: Symbolization is giving names to the certain race, for example, Jews Gypsies or to recognize them in colours or what they wear?. 
  3. Dehumanization: Dehumanization is to have one group or nation to deny the humanity of another group or nation. They are put to the level of animals monsters and vermin’s which are usually conducted through the act of propaganda.
  4. Organization: An organization is to always be collective and organized often by States.
  5. Polarization: Polarization is to use propaganda to polarize the people where extremists can drive the groups upon.
  6. Preparation: Preparation includes identification lists of homes are marked and the individual victims and their family. They are forced to carry something to identify them, for example, the other star saying, Jude, that the to identify the Jews in World war 2. 
  7.  Extermination:  Extermination is when the mass killings begin and it’s legally called Genocide 
  8.  Denial: Denial is what happens after the extermination has been completed. They gird against everything that they have ever committed an attempt to remove the evidence at all cost.

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Current Genocides in the World

The word genocide can be defined by breaking it into two components. It comes from the Greek word Geno meaning razor/tribe and the language Cide meaning killing it. Specifically refers to a violent crime against a group of people, intending to destroy their existence, mainly those of one particular ethnicity or nationality.

Darfur Genocide

Sudan is the biggest nation in Africa lies where the Sahara Desert meets the plain grassland of the Sahel. Since its gains freedom in 1956, Civil wars between North and South Sudan have killed millions and displaced millions.

More now a new conflict has emerged in its westernmost region called Darfur. Nearly the size of France, this vast region has been neglected for years by the government. Darfur means land for a Muslim African tribe indigenous to the area.

The region is inhabited by many tribes that are racially and culturally intertwine. But despite these cultural similarities, groups of farmers who are viewed as African and groups of herders who are considered Arab have had clashes over the land for decades.

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Droughts, famines, desertification and population pressures have added to the rising tensions. Since 2003 rebel groups have fought against the government accusing it of supporting the Arab herders over the African farmers. The government’s response caused a mass exodus forcing villagers to become refugees in their own homeland.

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In this United Nations refugee camp along the Chad Sudan border, the women and children here seek asylum from the Janjaweed. The armed militias of Arab herders organized by the government to fight the rebels and kill civilians. Entire villages have been burned hundreds of thousands have died from beatings rapes and mutilations are used as weapons of terror.

Around two million people almost a third of Darfur s population have fled their villages. These refugees have lost everything, but they are the lucky ones. Most still wander the land, unable to go home as their lives still at risk.

Despite the international pressure the fighting still continues and in Darfur, the people are still dying.

Rwandan genocide

The event took place all the way back in 1994.  The country is located in the continent of Africa, a few degrees south of the Equator.  It began in 1933 with the country of Belgium, who had been dated, Rwanda. They were exercising full control over Rwanda.

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They categorize people into three Groups-

  • The first was a Tutsi people, who owned the most cattle.
  • The Second was the Twa people, who are mostly hunter-gatherers. 
  • The last group was of the Hutus, who did not have a specific role and were simply the rest of the population.

Rwanda and Burundi are two adjacent countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Both were run by Western imperialist powers until they gained independence.

Read also: Why Are Chemical Weapons Banned But Not Nuclear?

A- little history-

Germany colonized Rwanda in 1894 and quickly began to intensify local division in order to strengthen their own rule and in 1920s Rwanda was taken under Belgian control. They ruled through the Tutsi leader before replacing him with one of their own.

The Belgian regime was one dominated by open racism against every other ethnic group, except the Tutsi they considered superior. As a result, the Hutu were oppressed and discriminated against by their own government throughout Belgian rule.

The Hutu and Tutsi were clearly separated, even marriage between the two groups was forbidden. The Hutu have brutally suppressed punishments, include amputations administered by the Tutsis. By the 1940s thousands of Hutus had fled to Uganda. 

A violent incident sparked by Hutu uprising which resulted in thousands of Tutsi death. This was the beginning of the Hutu peasant revolution which took place from 1959 to 1961 is signified the end of two – domination and increased ethnic tension.

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In the end, Rwanda gained independence from Belgium another split occurred, when the nation of Burundi separated from Rwanda in 1962. Today, the two main ethnic groups are divided in Rwanda and Burundi are the Tutsi and the Hutu.

The Tutsi are the minority and makeup 10 to 15% of the population. The Hutus are the majority and makeup about 85 to 90 % and Twa makes up 1%. They all speak the same language and share the majority religion of Roman Catholicism. 

Both ethnicity and religion are centrifugal forces, while language is a centripetal force. The conflict has taken in form of violent revolts in a mass genocide in 1994. Hutu are the majority they are pressed by the Tutsi who are the minority.

On April 6, 1994, Hutu President of Rwanda and the president of Burundi was shot down, this sparked violence by the Hutu extremists who launched their plans to destroy the entire Tutsi population. Political leaders and other high-profile punks who might have been able to take charge of the situation were killed immediately.

Tutsi were killed in their homes and as they tried to flee. Entire families were killed at once, it is estimated that some 800,000 people participated in the Rwandan genocide and 200,000 were killed. In addition, thousands of Hutu were murdered for resisting the killing campaign.

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Policymakers in France, The US and Belgium knew what was being planned and did nothing to stop. The genocide was stopped by the Rwandan Patriotic Front or the RPF. They established a coalition government with a Hutu president and Tutsi vice president. A new constitution was created in 2003.

The new constitution divides Rwanda and two provinces districts, cities and towns. The borders were established by the Parliament in 2006 in an attempt to decentralize power and remove the association with the old system.

In the genocide instead of 12 provinces, there are now five northern-southern-Eastern-Western and the municipality of Kigali in the centre. Twenty years after the genocide, there are still tensions between the two tribes, however, many Rwandan who had fled the country seeking refuge in the neighbouring countries are slowly returning home.

Although the Hutu and Tutsi have quite a journey until all tensions are resolved many current tribe members are taking the necessary steps toward harmony.

Dzungar genocide

Dzungar genocide, this genocide took place between 1755 to 1758 throughout much of Asia. The Dzungar genocide occurred, as China decided that they wanted to expand, hoping that they could become a more multicultural Empire through the conquer of surrounding areas.

The Dzungars were one of the largest groups in the surrounding area.

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The population of Mongolia’s stretching from the Great Wall to Kazakhstan. Historians often note them to be the last great pneumatic Empire and they were also powerful. 

The Qianlong Emperor commanded the genocide due to the rebellion by Dzungar leader Amursana in 1755 against Qing rule after the dynasty first conquered the Dzungar Khanate with Amursana’s support.

They were viewed as even more dangerous to it. It was then the mass extermination that we know as the Dzungar genocide, where 80% of the Dzungar were killed by the perpetrators.

The Qianlong Emperor issued the following order to show no mercy at all to these rebels and often punished high military officials who spared the life of the Dzungar.

The current Chinese government takes no position on this matter or that who has responsibility for this genocide. In fact, learning about this historical death is really part of the Chinese of curriculum to ensure Harmonists relations between the Chinese ethnic groups.

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There was little to no inclusion of other nations during this time in Asia other than for trading so no foreign aid was offered or accepted.

Even today ethnic groups such as Tibetans and Mongols and others fight to preserve their autonomy and culture in parts of China, where the government is particularly repressive.

Bosnian Genocide

Bosnia was a country in eastern Europe home to three groups of ethnic background: Croatians, Serbians and Muslims. In 1991 when the soviet union come to an end these three groups of people divided each other apart. The new Serbian leader was Slobodan Milosevic.

He opposed the entire Muslim race. He convinced the Serbians that Muslims were mistreating the Serbs living in Bosnian territory and order to keep their own race alive they must fight a war with Bosnia.

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They organise a rally and give a hate speech about Bosnia. The day after the speech the Serbian army was sent into Bosnia for war starting in 1992. Bosnia had no military at the time and civilians had to fend for themselves.

After just a few months Serbia was in control over 70% Bosnian land. The Serbian army began the systematic “ethnic cleansing” of the Bosnian Muslims killing them by any means possible.

The result of this was very devasting. The lives of the Bosnian people were changed forever. They were placed into concentration camps where they were starved. They were beaten and they were killed in mass shootings. Women were sent to “rape camps” where they were raped repeatedly and murdered.

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When Bosnia’s capital city Sarajevo was invaded, Serbians sniper were ordered to shoot all civilians waking into the streets. It was complete chaos in the streets. In 1995 both the UN(United Nations) and NATO(North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) bombed Serbia. On November 21st, 1995 with the Dayton peace agreement being signed. 

The Genocide finally came to an end. The aftermath was catastrophic. Mass burials were discovered years after the genocide had ended and this made it difficult to estimate the number of deaths. It is estimated that 200,000 people lost their lives, 12,000 were children and 50,000 women were raped. Over 2 million were forced to flee from their homes.

Excavated bodies have since been put into coffins and several mass funerals have taken place.

Armenian Genocide

As the Ottoman Empire declined in power during the turn of the 20th century, Turkish leaders suspected the Armenian population of supporting Russia in the Russo-Turkish wars, and during World War I.

Starting in the early 20th century, The New York Times began regularly reporting on a series of mass executions of Armenians by the Turks.

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Most Armenian genocide historians agree that the largest loss of life occurred around 1915, with one and a half million Armenians left dead from torturous practices like hard labour camps and death marches.

France, Canada and Switzerland are among more than 20 countries which officially acknowledge that the violence against Armenians was a genocide.

However, the Turkish government refuses to acknowledge that claim. The United Nations defines genocide in a 1948 convention, as the taking out of acts meant “to slaughter, in full or in portion, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group”.

But Turkey denies that they were attempting to destroy the Armenian people. On April 12th, 2015 Pope Francis referred to the mass killings of Armenians by the Ottoman Empire during World War One, as “the first genocide of the 20th century”.

In response, Turkey recalled their Vatican City ambassador and declared the pope’s comments to be “null and void.”

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They say that during World War I, both sides experienced casualties. Turkey claims that only about three to six hundred thousand Armenians were killed, while Muslims in the region experienced even more casualties – “approximately 2.5 million in eastern Anatolia” alone.

Therefore, Turkey has maintained that the violence towards Armenians did not constitute a genocide. Azerbaijan is one of the only nations to side with Turkey on this issue. Most major nations say, “yes”.

But the dispute is ongoing. Since Turkey is a powerful ally in the Euro-Asian region, some countries, like the US and The UK, have avoided using the term “genocide”.

Diplomatic alliances in the area are currently in a delicate balance, but a dialogue between Armenia and Turkey remain open for now.

Anfal Genocide

In 1987, Saddam Hussein appoints his cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid to execute a military campaign called the Anfal. Anfal is Arabic for the spoils, the term refers to a book in the Quran that proclaims the “spoils of war” belonged to Allah and his messengers.

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In an audiotape, Ali Hassan al-Majid discusses his plans for the Kurds with fellow officers in northern Iraq. ” I will kill them all with Chemical Weapons! Who is going to say anything? The International Community, and those who listen to them!”

A year later in February 1988, the Iraqi army begins the Anfal campaign. Saddam Hussein believes it will solve his Kurdish problem. For the next six months al-Majid orders the Iraqi Air Force to drop mustard gas and nerve agents on the civilian population for this he becomes known among Iraqis as a “Chemical Ali”

According to Human Rights Watch, It is estimated that 50,000–100,000 lost their Lives. Although Kurdish officials have claimed the figure could be as high as 182,000.

Rohingya genocide

In August 2017, thousands of Rohingya militants staged a coordinated attack that killed 12 security officers in Myanmar’s border state of Rakhine. The attack sparked a bloody and brutal crackdown by the Burmese military on the Rohingya people in Myanmar.

Reports surfaced that members of the military were killing and raping the Rohingya, and even burning their villages to the ground. This wave of violence has sent more than 400,000 Rohingya fleeing across the border to Bangladesh, sparking what some are calling the fastest growing refugee crisis in the world.

One UN official has even called the violence against the minority group, “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing.”

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So who are the Rohingya and why are they being targeted in the first place?

First and foremost the Rohingya are a stateless people who have been rejected almost everywhere they go. They are an ethnic group that speaks their own language and are predominantly Muslim, living in a Buddhist-majority nation.

They were once the largest minority group in Myanmar before it denied their existence altogether. Myanmar officially recognizes 135 ethnics groups within its borders, but the Rohingya aren’t one of them.

The government of Myanmar denies them citizenship and has even banned the word “Rohingya” itself, preferring to call them Bengalis, because of the similarities in their language to people from Bangladesh.

The government of Myanmar claims that the Rohingya aren’t originally from the country and illegally immigrated there generations ago during British rule. Between 1824 and 1948, a large number of people migrated to the British colony from areas that are now considered India and Bangladesh.

But according to historians, the minority group’s heritage can actually be traced back centuries to the ancient Arakan dynasty, which was located where Rakhine is now. The tension between the Rohingya and the Burmese goes all the way back to World War II when they took different sides in the war.

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The Rohingya supported British colonialism, while the Burmese supported the Japanese, who they thought would bring an end to western imperialism in the country. In 1962, Burma’s military overthrew the government in a coup and got rid of its constitution, establishing military rule, known as a junta.

Under the leadership of General Ne Win, Myanmar began embracing a new form of national identity that was defined by the Burmese ethnicity and Buddhist religion. This was a pivotal time when the government officially began to treat the Rohingya as outsiders.

This wave of Burmese nationalism led to the first military campaign against the Rohingya In 1978 with Operation Dragon King. The military claimed it was meant to combat so-called foreigners who had invaded Rakhine – now home to more than one million Rohingya, but it really targeted the entire minority group.

During the campaign, nearly 250,000 Rohingya fled to neighbouring Bangladesh. In 1991, the military launched another offensive literally called “Operation Clean And Beautiful Nation,” which forced another 200,000 Rohingya out of Myanmar.

Then, in 1982, Myanmar took legislative action against the Rohingya. The 1982 Citizenship Law officially established a list of recognized indigenous ethnic groups in Myanmar. The Rohingya were excluded from the list, thus denying them citizenship and the right to vote in the country.

Subsequent laws have even forced the Rohingya to gain government permission to travel and marry. There’s still a maximum “two-child policy” set in place specifically for Rohingya families. Since then, there have been numerous assaults by the government of Myanmar against the Rohingya.

The only thing that’s different between those and the current assault, is that the world is now paying attention.

Despite this, Myanmar’s Nobel Prize-winning leader Aung San Suu Kyi’s response has ranged from slow at best, to outright denial that it’s even happening.

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While the international community has strongly condemned the violence, they’ve also done little to actually pressure the government of Myanmar to halt its assault, which has only contributed to what is now the fastest-growing refugee crisis in the world.